Rudolph Hermann Lotze

Rudolph Hermann Lotze

Born: 1817. Died: 1881


Rudolf Hermann Lotze was born on May 21, 1817.

He was a German philosopher and psychologist who studied medicine and philosophy in Leipzig.

He attempted to reconcile the concepts of mechanistic science with the principles of romantic idealism.

He started with the idea that all phenomena are determined by the interaction of substance. By analogy from immediate knowledge of spiritual existence in the self, Lotze argued that the centers of force are stages of development within the underlying substance of the world mind. An analogy between the whole world and its parts comes from the Greek word mikros kosmos, "little world," a Western philosophical term designating man as being a little world in which the universe is reflected.

A student of both medicine and philosophy at Leipzig, he later lectured there in both fields, becoming a professor in 1842. In 1844 he succeeded Johann Friedrich Herbart as professor at Gottingen, and in 1881 he joined the faculty at Berlin.

Lotze’s work on "medical psychology" entitled him to be called one of the founders of physiological psychology.

He died on July 1, 1881.

Major Works of Rudolph Hermann Lotze

- Grundzüge der Aesthetik, 1868
- Grundzüge der Logik und Encyclopädie der Philosophie, 1883
- Logik, 1843
- System of Philosophy: Logic: In Three Books, 1884
- System of Philosophy: Metaphysic: In Three Books, 1884
- Microcosmus: An Essay Concerning Man and His Relation to the World, Volumes 1 and 2, 1856-64
- Outlines of Aesthetics, 1886
- Outlines of Logic, 1887
- Outlines of Metaphysic, 1884
- Outlines of the Philosophy of Religion, 1885
- Outlines of Practical Philosophy, 1885
- Outlines of Psychology, 1886


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