Discipline: Art

(15th-16th century)

A formal term applied in the 19th century to the re-emergence and synthesis of classical thought during the Renaissance.

Although evident in Petrarch's studies of classical texts in the 14th century, it was particularly during the 15th century (in Florence, Venice and Naples) that scholars' rediscovery of classical civilization and literature led to the development of rational thought and approaches which were not dependent on Christian customs.

In Florence, this intellectual shift was confirmed by the establishment of Marsilio Ficino's neo-Platonic academy in 1492.


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