Exit, Voice, and Loyalty

Discipline: Political Science

Theory of dissidence described by American political scientist Albert Otto Hirschman (1915- ).

Those who are dissatisfied with the policies or general character of an organization have three choices: they can leave (exit); they can oppose (voice); or they can keep quiet (loyalty).

Albert O Hirschman, Exit, Voice, and Loyalty (Cambridge, Mass., 1970)


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