Ludwig von Mises

Ludwig von Mises

Born: 1881. Died: 1973.

Biography

Ludwig Elder von Mises, the eminence of the "Austrian School" of economics, may be best known for his part in a debate that raged during the early part of the 20th Century about the possibility of successful economic coordination under socialism. Mises argued forcefully that state ownership of the means of production makes the best assignment of capital goods impossible, due to the absence of a market price system. Mises's student, Friedrich Hayek, refined Mises's insights and both were vindicated by history.

Born in Lemberg, in the Austro-Hungarian Empire (now L'vov, Ukraine), Mises went to the University of Vienna in 1900 and there came under the tutelage of Eugen von Böhm-Bawerk, who inducted Mises into the Austrian School. Mises's first major work, A Theory of Money and Credit, showed, against the tide of current opionion, that money should be understood on the same terms as the rest of economic systems.

In 1913, Mises became an unpaid professor at the University of Vienna, and held a famous, high-flying seminar there, while he made his living at the Austrian Chamber of Commerce. Never fully appreciated in academic Vienna, and in flight from Nazi Austria, Mises moved to Geneva in 1934, where he completed his magnum opus, Human Action, which lays out a comprehensive economic theory based on what Mises took to be self-evident, a priori axioms of human behavior.

In 1940, Mises moved to New York City, where he met with more academic neglect, yet managed to publish such notable works as Omnipotent Government and Bureaucracy, and held a popular and influential seminar while teaching as a Visiting Professor at the NYU Graduate School of Business. Mises's productivity, brilliance, and immense integrity in his defense of liberal ideals won him a devoted following who have brought him a small portion of the recognition he deserves.

Major Books of Ludwig von Mises

- The Anti-capitalistic Mentality, 1956
- The Austrian Theory of the Trade Cycle, 1936, Bulletin of the Sociéte Belge d'Etudes et d'Expansion
- Autarky and Its Consequences, 1943 (first published Money, Method, and the Market Process, 1982)
- Between the Two World Wars, Richard M. Ebeling, editor, (posthumously) 2002
- Bureaucracy, 1944
- The Causes of the Economic Crisis, 1931
- The Clash of Group Interests, in Bryson, editor, Approaches to National Unity, 1945
- The Clash of Group Interests and Other Essays, 1978
- The Disintegration of the International Division of Labor, 1938, in Money, Method, and the Market Process, 1982
- The Economic Foundation of Freedom, 1958 (first published 1988)
- Economic Freedom and Interventionism, Bettina Bien Greaves, editor, (posthumously) 1990
- Economic Nationalism and Peaceful Economic Cooperation, 1942 (first published 1982)
- Economic Policy: Thoughts for Today and Tomorrow, 1959 (first published 1979)
- Economics as a Bridge for Interhuman Understanding, 1945, (first published, 1990)
- Epistemological Problems of Economics, 1932
- Epistemological Relativism in the Sciences of Human Action, in Schoeck and Wiggins, editors, Relativism and the Study of Man, 1961
- Foreword to Kirzner's The Economic Point of View, 1960
- Foreword to Percy Greaves's Understanding the Dollar Crisis, 1973
- The Historical Setting of the Austrian School of Economics, 1962
- Human Action: A Treatise on Economics, 1949
- Hundred Years of Marxian Socialism, 1967 (first published Money, Method, and the Market Process, 1982)
- Kritik des Interventionismus, 1929
- Liberalism: the Free and Prosperous Commonwealth, 1927
- Monetary Stabilization and Cyclical Policy, 1928
- Money, Method, and the Market Process, 1982
- Nation, State, and Economy: Contributions to the Politics and History of Our Time, 1919
- Nationalökonomie: Theorie des Handelns und Wirtschaftens, 1940
- The Non-Neutrality of Money, 1938 (first published Money, Method, and the Market Process, 1982)
- Notes and Recollections, 1978
- The Objectives of Economic Education: Memo to Read, 1948
- Observations on the Cooperative Movement, in Cooperatives in the Petroleum Industry, 1947
- Omnipotent Government: The rise of the total state and total war, 1944
- On Current Monetary Problems: Interview with Greaves, 1969
- On the Manipulation of Money and Credit, with Percy L. Greaves and Bettina Bien Greaves, 1978
- Planned Chaos, 1947
- Planning for Freedom, and Other Essays and Addresses, 1952
- The Plight of the Underdeveloped Nations, 1959 (first published 1982)
- The Political Economy of International Reform and Reconstruction, Richard M. Ebeling, editor, (posthumously) 2000
- The Position of Money Among Economic Goods, in Meyer et al., editors, Die Wirtschaftstheorie der Gegenwart, 1932, republished in Money, Method, and the Market Process, 1982
- Profit and Loss, 1951
- The Role of Doctrines in Human History, 1949 (first published Money, Method, and the Market Process, 1982)
- Small and Big Business, 1961, (first published, 1990)
- Socialism: An economic and sociological analysis, 1922
- Some Observations on Current Economic Methods and Policies, 1966 (first published 1982)
- Theory and History: An Interpretation of Social and Economic Evolution, 1957
- The Theory of Money and Credit, 1912
- The Ultimate Foundation of Economic Science: An Essay on Method, 1962
- Why Read Adam Smith Today?, Preface to 1953 reprint of Adam Smith's Wealth of Nations, reprinted in Economic Freedom and Interventionism, 1990

Major Articles of Ludwig von Mises

- 1920, Economic Calculation in the Socialist Commonwealth, Archiv fur Sozialwissenschaft und Sozialpolitik
- 1924, Neue Beiträge zum Problem der sozialistischen Wirtschaftsrechnung, Archiv fur Sozialwissenschaften
- 1926, Neue Schriften zum Problem der sozialistischen Wirtschaftsrechnung, Archiv fur Sozialwissenschaften
- 1930, The Suitability of Methods of Ascertaining Changes in Purchasing Power for the Guidance of International Currency or Banking Policy, League of Nations, reprinted in Money, Method, and the Market Process, 1982
- 1932, The Great German Inflation: Review of F.D. Graham, Economica
- 1933, Senior's Lectures on Monetary Problems, EJ
- 1936, The Austrian Theory of the Trade Cycle, Bulletin of the Sociéte Belge d'Etudes et d'Expansion
- 1942, Inflation and You, Mercury
- 1942, Social Science and Natural Science, Journal of Social Philosophy & Jurisprudence
- 1944, The Treatment of 'Irrationality' in the Social Sciences, Philosophy and Phenomenological Research
- 1944, Monopoly Prices, (first published Quarterly Journal of Austrian Economics, 1998)
- 1949, The Why of Human Action, Plain Talk
- 1950, The Idea of Liberty is Western, American Affairs
- 1950, Middle-of-the-Road Policy Leads to Socialism, Commercial and Financial Chronicle
- 1951, Inflation: An Unworkable Fiscal Policy, Commercial & Financial Chronicle
- 1951, Inflation, NY World Telegram & Sun
- 1951, Inflation Must End in a Slump, NY World Telegram & Sun
- 1951, The Symptomatic Keynes: Review of Harrod's Biography, The Freeman
- 1951, The Trade Cycle, The Freeman
- 1953, The Agony of the Welfare State, The Freeman
- 1953, Gold versus Paper, The Freeman
- 1955, How Can Europe Survive? Review of Sennholz, Christian Econ
- 1955, Inequality of Wealth and Incomes, The Freeman
- 1955, Review of Rappard's The Secret of American Prosperity, The Freeman
- 1956, Luxuries into Necessities, NYU Newsletter
- 1956, The Plight of Business Forecasting, National Review
- 1957, Full Employment and Monetary Policy, National Review
- 1957, The Saver as a Voter, Zeitschrift für das gesamte Kreditwesen
- 1958, Economic Freedom in the Present-Day World, USA Magazine
- 1958, Liberty and Property, Commercial and Financial Chronicle
- 1959, Capital and Interest: Eugen von Böhm-Bawerk and the Discriminating Reader, The Freeman
- 1959, The Soviet System's Economic Failure, NY World Telegram & Sun
- 1960, The Economic Foundations of Freedom, The Freeman
- 1960, Liberty and its Antithesis: Review of Hayek's Constitution of Liberty, Christian Econ
- 1960, Socialism, Inflation, and the Thrifty Householder, Christian Econ
- 1961, Foreign Spokesmen for Freedom, The Freeman
- 1961, On Equality and Inequality, Modern Age
- 1961, The Marxian Class Conflict Doctrine, Christian Econ
- 1961, The Marxian Theory of Wage Rates, Christian Econ
- 1961, Unemployment and the Height of Wage Rates, Christian Econ
- 1962, A Dangerous Recommendation for High School Economics, Christian Econ
- 1962, The Elite Under Capitalism, The Freeman
- 1962, Freedom Has Made a Comeback, New Guard
- 1962, Review of Rothbard's Man, Economy and State, New Individualist Review
- 1962, Wage Earners and Employers, radio broadcast, (first published 1988, The Freeman)
- 1963, The Economic Role of Saving and Capital Goods, The Freeman
- 1964, Deception of Government Intervention, Christian Econ
- 1964, Professor Hutt on Keynesianism, The Freeman
- 1964, Wage Interference by Government, Christian Econ
- 1966, Observations on the Russian Reform Movement, The Freeman
- 1966, On Some Atavistic Economic Ideas, Festschrift for Jacques Rueff
- 1966, The Outlook for Saving and Investment, Farmand
- 1967, On the International Monetary Problem, American Opinion
- 1968, The Market and the State, Schweizer Monatshefte
- 1969, Capitalism versus Socialism, The Intercollegiate Review

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