A theory of the mind with many versions.
They have in common that they set up models which employ simple interactions between the nodes in a computer network in such a way that sets of these interactions occur at the same time (or 'in parallel', hence 'parallel processing').
This uses the information processing in the brain or nervous system as a model, and dispenses with separate elements in the system to carry the separate pieces of information; for example, sentences in a code which represent memories, thoughts, and so on.
It is disputed whether this whole approach represents a fundamentally new way of looking at thought, or whether it simply gives a microlevel analysis of an older or classical view such as that used in cognitive psychology.
W Bechtel and A Abrahamsen, Connectionism and the Mind (1991)