Discipline: Political Science
Theory of national and international politics.
The actions of parties, pressure groups and states, and the relations between them, are fruitfully studied by looking at 'inputs' and 'outputs' or pressures and actions on the one hand, and the resultant policies on the other.
The internal responses and calculations - or the ideological or pragmatic considerations of the institutions involved - are treated as irrelevant or invisible; as if they took place within a 'black box', and did not need to be considered when examining what goes into the box, or what comes out of it.
Akin to billiard ball model
Alan Bullock, Oliver Stallybrass, and Stephen Trombley, eds, The Fontana Dictionary of Modern Thought, 2nd edn (London, 1988)